Steel can be described as the metal of the twentieth century and continues to occupy the top position even in 21st century. It the metal of everyone’s choice because of resistance to corrosion, hardness and brightness thus making it suitable for both construction and industry. The leading stainless steel seamless pipes stockiest for Dammam Great Steel and Metals is explaining the process of steel manufacturing to help all its customers.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, in it the percentage of carbon is less than 2%.
The manufacturing process of steel starts with removing impurities of cast iron and after it reducing the amount of coal in it. Very high melting point, ie, 1400 degree C, is required in manufacturing steel which cannot be achieved by using fuels and conventional ovens. Henry Bessemer in 1855 developed the furnace that has his name etched on it . In it jets of pressurised air is injected through the metal and is used for refining iron. gas is preheated during the process by a regenerative process that allows temperatures to reach as high up to 1,650 degrees C.
Here we can analyse some elements that can be used for steel alloys:
Chrome: chromium carbides are formed in addition of chromium which is hard. This leads to enhancing the critical temperature range and makes steel harder than steel which is made by increasing the percentage of carbon.
Nickel: nickel increases the range of critical temperature and leads to increasing the strength without affecting the ductility. Nickel and chromium are used together as nickel provides the much needed toughness and ductility and chromium leads to wear resistance and toughness.
Manganese: Manganese leads to deoxidation and if the content manganese content exceeds 1%, the steel is known as a manganese alloy steel. It reduces the critical range of temperatures.
Silicon: it is used as a flux material. Like other alloys, silicon also leads to stabilisation of carbides and makes steel with high magnetic permeability.
Vanadium: it is a very deoxidising agent and enhances the toughness of steel. Vanadium steel is resistant to annealing thus used in tool steels.
Tungsten: Tungsten leads to hardness with a fine structure. It is mainly used in tool steels.
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